Bats are nocturnal flying mammals. In Nevada we have 23 bat species, some of whom live alone in places like trees and bat boxes while others live in colonies in caves. These wondrous creatures are a vital part of many ecosystems and contrary to popular belief only less than 0.5% of bats contract rabies (Nevada Department of Wildlife). Most bats only bite out of self-defense, unless they are one of the three species of vampire bats out of 1,000 of other bat species. Bats often try to avoid people and other animals to protect themselves and in turn don’t easily contract diseases like rabies. Still, never handle a bat; they are delicate, vulnerable creatures that will be afraid of you and might try to bite, and regardless, they probably just don’t want to be held.
Most bats are insectivorous, eating mosquitos, moths, locusts, beetles, and grasshoppers. Without them we would have to add more pesticides to crops to fight off insects, and people would be more susceptible to diseases that are carried by mosquitoes. Possibly worst of all, imagine summer camping trips with 20% more mosquitos. Bats also pollinate crops, flowers, and other plant species; your favorite fruit was most likely pollinated by a bat. Out of the 23 bat species in Nevada only one is currently listed as threatened through the Endangered Species Act; the Spotted Bat (Euderma maculatum). Unfortunately, 50% of the United States bat species have declined or become endangered (Nevada Department of Wildlife) and Nevada is no exception. To protect bats in the United States, organizations like Bat Conservation International have been protecting and restoring bat habitats, finding solutions to White Nose Syndrome, a deadly fungus for bats brought into caves by miners and explorers, monitoring populations of bats, and educating the public. You can get involved by building a bat box in your backyard (basically free insect control!), participating in bat-monitoring surveys, or learning more about bats and threats to bat species and sharing this information with friends and family.
NV Bat Brochure
Bat Conservation International Bat Box Information
People from indigenous communities have been one with the land for thousands of years. They have learned not only how to survive in nature, but also how to thrive. Part of being able to thrive is integrating art within your lifestyle.
Weaving is not only used as a tool for indigenous people but also as a way to express oneself through art. Being able to strategically integrate the fibers of a plant into another form is what makes the art of weaving so useful. The Washoe people were able to find and use many different plants to weave with. One plant that they commonly used was sagebrush. The art of weaving can result in a lightweight form of containers, clothes, shelter and more.
Dat-So-La-Lee (a native Washoe woman) is famous for her basket weaving abilities. After meeting Abe Cohn in 1895, he began to sponsor her and manage her baskets. Dat-So-La-Lee is still known for her beautiful handcrafted woven baskets today.
Sagebrush is a large part of Nevada's ecosystem. Its scientific name is Artemisia tridentata, comes from the Greek goddess: Artemis. A unique characteristic of this plant is its medicinal purposes that were used by the Native Americans of the area. Some medicinal benefits from the leaves of sagebrush include treating headaches, colds, internal bleeding and lessening the effects of infected wounds. While the leaves are edible, it gives off a very bitter and pungent taste. Not only did the Natives use sagebrush for its medicinal benefits, but the bark could also be used to weave mats and other materials.
Another reason that sagebrush was determined as the state flower is because it is so apparent to the area. Due to Nevada’s dry climate, the soil is very sandy and cannot hold water well. This makes perfect conditions for sagebrush to thrive.
With the historical background and importance of sagebrush, it makes sense that it has been determined the state's flower. It also appears on the state’s flag as well as the state’s song!
Many of you may have heard of the beetle infestation that has devastated North American forests over the last decade. It may surprise you that this infestation is directly linked to our mis-management of wildfires over last century.“Fire suppression” was the leading forest-management strategy of the 20th century, where any and all wildfires were treated as unnecessarily destructive and immediately put out. However, by squelching every wildfire, we have effectively allowed wood (fuel) to stockpile, leading to the inevitable, uncontrollable, and devastating series of wildfires that we have been enduring for the past decade.
We have since learned that wildfires are a critical step in the cycle of a healthy forest system. Native Americans were fully aware of this fact, and used wildfire as a tool to promote the growth of desired plants in subsequent seasons. Without fire, forests become overgrown. Overgrown forests are more susceptible to massive fires since they hold more fuel, and induce drought by increasing competition among plants for a limited water supply. In short, an overgrown forest is a weaker forest.
Enter: the bark beetle. There are several species of bark beetle that have contributed to the recent infestation and all are native to the southwest. Bark beetles perform the critical ecological duty of sending weakened trees back into the cycle of decomposition, essentially “thinning” the forest of unhealthy trees. However, when the entire forest is weakened through drought (both natural and unnatural), there is no barrier to the beetle’s expansion. So what can we do? We can’t just let every wildfire burn!
New forest-management tactics have recently been implemented which cater to the needs of both people and forests. In areas farther away from human activity, professionals use “controlled burns” to maintain forest health in a natural way; while near inhabited areas, “ecological thinning” is used to manually clear forests of excess growth.
Fire ecology is a prime example of how human ingenuity can often fall short of understanding how interconnected our ecosystems can be. There is still so much that we do not know, and hopefully, by being more cautious about how we tamper with our ecosystems, we can avoid such destructive consequences.
One of the structures in the southern section of our park is the Galena Creek Fish Hatchery, an attempt to rebuild the local ecosystem after the devastation caused by the mining during the mid-1800s. Overfishing and water pollution and common side effects of mining and lumber, and the Truckee River Watershed was no exception. The Galena Creek Fish Hatchery was used from 1931 to 1949 to restock the local waterways with fish, both Rainbow Trout and Brook Trout, to restore the ecosystem and provide recreational fishing opportunities. This hatchery is a good example of the combination of ecological restoration and recreational development. The fish hatchery ceased operations in 1949, when the Boy Scouts began using the site. Washoe County took over the area again in 1949 and they are currently available for public use. Marilyn’s Pond is a popular fishing destination for young kids, providing an easy and reliable catch.
Officially named the “Antelope Bitterbrush”, the Bitterbrush is extremely well adapted to live in desert environments, which is why it is one of the most common species in this area of Nevada. A closer look at the leaves shows that they have a waxy coating, and are covered in tiny hairs which diffuse sunlight - both of which help prevent water loss. The plant also grows roots that have been found to be up to 15ft deep, allowing the plant to access water stored deeper in the soil. Individuals range in size from shrubs to small trees, and most live to be several decades old; though, some of the most successful have been found to be over 100 years old.
Bitterbrush provides a crucial habitat for many small animals, namely rodents, snakes, and lizards. The plant has a symbiotic relationship with these creatures: lizards will defend the plant by eating insects that are after its leaves, while the plant’s seeds are a crucial source of food for rodents. Rodents will bury a “cache” to store food for winter, and when some of these caches are inevitably forgotten, the planted seed is left free to germinate and begin the process anew.
Take a walk anywhere in the greater Reno area and you will notice that Bitterbrush is also one of the first plants to bloom in the spring. Individuals that have direct exposure to the sun will already have bright yellow, flagrant flowers, while those that are more shaded should bear “bulbs” that will bloom within the next few weeks!
When the snow begins to melt in the Galena forest, it’s met with the contrast of a bright red pillar poking through, announcing spring. This plant contains no green foliage, causing the hiker passing by to wonder how it photosynthesizes. The secret is, it doesn’t! The Snow Plant (Sarcodes sanguinea) gets nutrients through other plants by way of the mycorrhizal (pronounced “my-ko-RY-zoll”) fungal networks of conifer trees. Pine trees, along with many other plants, develop a symbiotic relationship with fungi in their roots; the mycelial strands of the fungi extend beyond the roots and bring water and nutrients to the conifer, as well as connecting several trees together in a big underground network. The Snow Plant takes advantage of this network by parasitizing the mycorrhizae and taking some of the nutrients. Ultimately a parasite of conifers, you’ll start to notice that Snow Plants grow under or very close to conifers. Through this process, the Snow Plant doesn’t need to have any green foliage and can focus on reproduction and growth. Parasites are a natural part of an ecosystem and are more common than you think. Just like everything else, they play a role and are important for other organisms. Because Snow Plant is one of the first things to bloom in spring, they are an important food source for pollinators.
Learn more here:
US Forest Service - Snow Plant
National Forests - Snow Plant
Botanical Society of America - Snow Plant
Habitat destruction has been forcing wildlife into human environments, where zoonotic (animal-transmitted) diseases can flourish. Deforestation, for lumber and land conversion, is bringing humans and domesticated animals into closer contact with exotic species and animals that act as natural hosts of coronavirus-type diseases. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ¾ of new diseases that infect humans originate in animals. There has been a lot of confusion as to the relationship between bats and COVID-19. Increasing reports show that the original strain of COVID-19 originated in bats, then spread to different intermediate hosts found in a wet market in Wuhan City, China because of our exploitation of nature, but it is now a human disease (spread from person to person). This means humans cannot get it from wildlife, including bats. Bats and other wildlife are natural hosts to coronaviruses, but we can only get this type of coronavirus from each other. That being said, bats in the wild are less likely to transmit these diseases to other animals (including humans) as these other species are specialized within distinct and well-established habitats and if they are protected and left undisturbed. This gives us even more reason to want to protect their habitat by supporting organizations that plant native trees and eat less meat and dairy from cattle that graze on recently converted pastureland. Bats must be protected as they are important for pest control, pollination, seed dispersal, global diversity, and ecosystem health.
Watts, Jonathan (2020). ‘Promiscuous treatment of nature’ will lead to more pandemics scientists. TheGuardian.com. (https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2020/may/07/promiscuous-treatment-of nature-will-lead-to-more-pandemics-scientists)
Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of autoimmunity, 102433.
Admin (2020). General News: BCI’s FAQ on Bats and Covid-19. Bat Conservation International. (http://www.batcon.org/resources/media-education/news-room/gen news/80-latest-news/1227-bci-s-faq-on-bats-and-covid-19).
It’s springtime and animals are coming out of hibernation! Rodents, specifically, are some of the first mammal species to emerge and dig up their food caches from the winter. Of the rodent population, there are 15 species of native chipmunks in North America, with the Least Chipmunk (Eutamias minimas) found in the Canada, Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, and parts of the upper Midwest. They are the smallest of chipmunks, typically 3 ⅔ to 4 ½ inches (9 to 11 cm) long and weighing 1-2 ounces (35 to 70 kg). They can often be confused with some squirrels, like the Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) and Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), but Least Chipmunks are yellowish-gray with tawny dark stripes down its back. They inhabit low sagebrush deserts, high mountain coniferous forests, and northern mixed hardwood forests, and live in burrows nearby different objects or buildings. Their burrows are inconspicuous and hard to see because they carry the dirt in its cheek pouches and scatter it away from the burrow entrances to evade predators. During the winter, chipmunks enter a restless hibernation and rely on food caches, ranging from berries to insects, they bring to their burrows at the onset of winter, as opposed to squirrels that enter a deep hibernation. You may start to see them coming out of hibernation as early as the beginning of March! Palmer's Chipmunks (Tamias palmeri), endemic to Nevada, are state-protected due to their extreme limited distribution in the Spring Mountains. Human activity, such as woodcutting, water diversion, and predation by dogs and cats have been ongoing threats to this species. The Nevada Department of Wildlife is continuing to monitor this species, but to help chipmunks residents can build rodent-proof structures to exclude them from entering gardens and store food items, like bird seed and dog food, in rodent-proof containers.
Nevada Department of Wildlife Palmer’s Chipmunks- http://www.ndow.org/Species/Furbearer/Palmer_s_Chipmunk/
University of Nebraska-Lincoln: Chipmunks- http://agri.nv.gov/uploadedFiles/agrinvgov/Content/Protection/Resource_Protection/Chipmunk.pdf
Have you ever wondered why we’re called Galena Creek, or perhaps you wonder why there’s a big G plastered on the mountain when you’re driving here from Reno? Let’s dig through some history and figure it out!
This area was developed as a mining property in 1860 by R.S. and Andrew Hitch. Their goal was to mine for gold, but the rock they were mining was too high in Lead Sulphide to be profitable. This Lead Sulphide is also known as Galena, hence the name. The prospects of mining were much better at the Comstock silver mines in Virginia City so the town of Galena became a source of timber for the Virginia City mines. The lush, forested area surrounding Galena was cut down and sent to Virginia City by teamster, or teams of mules. On the way back, the mules brought ore from Virginia City that were processed by mills in Galena. Between 1860 and 1865, the small town of Galena grew as the lumber business and ore processing took off.
Then, from 1864-65, a severe winter halted much of the movement between Virginia City and Galena resulting in most of the Galena mills being shut down. To add insult to injury, two devastating fires in 1865 and 1867 destroyed the town of Galena and shut down industry permanently.
The land located in the Galena Creek Regional Park is now jointly owned and managed by the USDA Forest Service and Washoe County Regional Parks and Open Space. They have created the beautiful picnic areas, visitor center, and trails we all know and enjoy today.
This blog is managed by the staff and volunteers of Galena Creek Visitor Center. We write about parts of the natural world that we find fascinating and want to teach others about, as well as keeping you updated on the Visitor Center and park. If you want to learn more, please sign up for our monthly newsletter, where we share upcoming events, updates on the ecology of the park, and highlights from each month.